Clinical aspects of endocrinology

The parathyroid glands are responsible for calcium homeostasis, which is essential for appropriate functioning of the musculoskeletal and nervous systemParathyroid adenoma remains the most common sign for surgery. The adrenal cortex is mainly responsible for ooze of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and androgens whereas the medulla consists of pre-ganglionic sympathetic ganglion, which secretes epinephrine, nor-epinephrine and dopamine. Adrenocortical disease results in commotion of water balance, electrolytes, cardiovascular variability and metabolic disturbances.

These epithelial cells are gathered into three different adrenocortical zones settled as zona glomerulosa (ZG), zona fasciculate (ZF), and zona reticularis (ZR). The cells of ZG secrete significant amounts of the mineralocorticoids aldosterone, and ZF cells secrete the glucocorticoids cortisol and corticosterone, in addition to small amounts of adrenal androgens and estrogens, while ZR cells secrete the adrenal androgens androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and small amounts of estrogens and some glucocorticoids.